On October 27, 1991, Turkmenistan became an independent State, and since then this date has been marked as the Independence Day. On December 12, 1995, Turkmenistan was recognized as a permanently neutral State by the resolution of the UN General Assembly with the unanimous support of 185 member States. At present Turkmenistan has established diplomatic relations with 142 countries.
Turkmenistan is a democratic, law-based, secular State. The form of government is a Presidential republic. The political structure of the Turkmen state is formed in accordance with the Constitution of Turkmenistan, adopted on May 18, 1992 (the revised on September 14, 2016). The Сonstitution of Turkmenistan is the basic law of the State. According to that law, Turkmenistan’s state structure is based on the principle of separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial branches which act independently and balance each other. Constitutionally fixed norms and provisions are directly applicable. Laws and other legal acts that contradict the Constitution have no legal force.
The people of Turkmenistan is the bearer of sovereignty and the sole source of State power.
The State guarantees the freedom of religions and confessions and their equality before the law. Religious organizations are separate from the State and may not interfere in State affairs or fulfil state functions. The public education system is separate from religious organizations and is secular.