On the territory of Turkmenistan there are thousands of historical and cultural objects, which are the material embodiment of the people's memory of the significant, triumphant, joyful and sorrowful pages of fate of the nation.
There are eight historical reserves created in sites of the most significant archaeological and architectural monuments. Monuments of three historical and cultural reserves are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. This Ancient Merv (included in 1999), Kunyaurgench (since 2005) and the Parthian Fortresses of Nisa (since 2007).
The core of “Ancient Merv” State Historical and Cultural Reserve is a vast complex of ancient settlements and remains of fortresses. This is one of the largest centers of ancient and medieval civilization in the East. Once there was a boiling life, the blue dome of Sultan Sanjar mausoleum (XII century.) was visible to travelers from a day's journey distance. - Big and small Giz Galas with impressive “corrugated” walls are among unusual structure of Merv. Monuments of Ancient Merv, the oldest of which - Erk Kala - more than 2,500 years old, can be called the landmark of the history of Turkmenistan.
Another unique outdoor museum is Ancient Kunya Urgench. This city is related with the names of outstanding scientists of medieval East, where the great encyclopedist Biruni lived and worked, the legendary aesculapian and philosopher East Abu Ali Ibn Sina also comes from this place. To this day, such pearls of medieval architecture as the minaret of Kutlug Timur (XIV c.) still preserved - One of the highest in Central Asia - and the mausoleum of Tyurabek Khanum, about whom amazing legend are still alive
Long places such as Old Nisa - once magnificent residence of Parthian kings, and today its remains testify to the power and prosperity of the Parthian state - the main rival of the Roman Empire for world domination become places of pilgrimage for tourists. Parthian Fortresses of Nisa were also entered into the register of monuments of the world in 2007.
In addition, there are also world-known monuments in the foothills of the Kopet Dag Altyn-Depe, Yylgynly-Depe, Ulug-Depe, Ak-Depe, ages of which is estimated at several thousands of years. No less famous Gonur Depe and Adji-Kui in the old delta of the Murghab River, Sassanid temple of fire in Mele Heyran Serahs oasis, Seiyt-Jamaladdin mosque in Anau (XV century), mausoleum of Meana Baba (XI century).